Coffee Vocabulary


Aeration: Introducing air into milk to create foam.

Bloom: Prewetting the coffee grounds to release excess gas and to aid the brewing process.

Brew ratio:The relationship between the weight of ground coffee and the volume of water used for brewing, typically reflected in grams per 6 fluid ounces in a standard U.S. cup.

Brew time: the length of time that water is in contact with ground coffee during brewing.

Dialing-in: The trade term for adjusting the espresso grinder to produce coarser or finer grinds until the extraction of the shot is correct and the coffee tastes good.

Extraction:The amount of flavor removed from the coffee grounds during the brewing process

Grind size:The size of ground coffee particles adjusted for proper extraction during brewing

Over-extracted: When too much flavor has been removed from the coffee grounds, including the undesirable ones, resulting in a bitter and unpleasant-tasting coffee.

Portafilter: The handle that holds the basket of all espresso machines.

Steaming: Heating milk while simultaneously injecting air into the milk’s protein strands to expand the milk.

Turbulence: A mixing action created as water passes through and over the coffee grounds allowing for even and adequate extraction from the coffee grounds.

Under-extracted: When too little desirable flavor has been removed from the coffee grounds, resulting in a sour and weak-tasting coffee.


AeroPress:A syringe-like device that makes a single cup of coffee using properties of both immersion and pressure brewing.

Chemex:An hour-glass shaped carafe that holds the filter in place and doubles as the coffee brewer and vessel, similar to a pour-over but with increased grind size and brew time.

Cold Brew: A form of extracting coffee from ground coffee using cold or ambient water temperatures.

Nitro Cold Brew:The process of kegging cold brew and adding exogenous nitrogen to the keg and shaking the combination of cold brew and nitrogen until the two have been bound together. Creating a bready taste and mouthfeel with a foamy head.

Drip coffee: A method of coffee brewing in which water passes through coffee grounds and a filter with the help of gravity.

French Press:A method of immersion brewing in which after the coffee grounds are steeped in water for a specific amount of time, a mesh filter is plunged through the coffee to separate the grounds from the beverage.

Immersion brewing: A category of brewing methods that involve steeping coffee grounds in water for a set amount of time.

Pressure brewing: A category of brewing methods that use pressure to force water through the coffee grounds to extract flavor.

Pour over:A manual method of making drip coffee using a cone-shaped dripper, a filter, and a kettle to pour water over the coffee grounds.

Tamping:Technique used in espresso brewing to pack down the ground coffee particles to for a flat tight bed.